even more pain

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“This seems to be true even when pain represents both benefit and harm, as anesthesiologist Henry Beecher found during World War II when he observed that 75 percent of soldiers with severe battlefield injuries—broken bones and torn limbs—reported experiencing only minor pain (even going so far as to decline morphine) because of what their injuries signified: they were going home.
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Studies have further shown that expecting pain to be severe worsens our experience of it, and expecting it to be mild improves it.
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Further, being psychologically braced for pain also lessens its unpleasantness.
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This is true regardless of its cause, whether it’s from a medical procedure done for our benefit, or from torture (even though pain caused with the intent to harm has been shown to hurt more than pain caused incidentally or accidentally).”
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